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    Trouble with consolidating schools

    Preliminary pages Chapter I (1-13) Our oldest school - Canterbury Chapter II (14-30) The Greek and Roman models Chapter III (31-45) Theodore of Tarsus and Aldhelm of Winchester Chapter IV (46-66) The schools of Northumbria: Bede and Alcuin Chapter V (67-75) Alfred the Great and the school of Winchester Chapter VI (76-95) The schools from Edward the Elder to Edward the Confessor Chapter VII (96-155) The schools from Lanfranc to Becket Chapter VIII (156-178) University colleges, collegiate churches, and schools Chapter IX (179-200) The era of school statutes Chapter X (201-212) The Black Death and Winchester College Chapter XI (213-234) The almonry of choristers' schools in the monasteries Chapter XII (235-276) The fifteenth century and humanism Chapter XIII (277-332) Henry VIII and the schools Index (333-308) THIS is the first attempt at a history of English Schools before the Reformation, reckoned from the accession of Edward VI. The rhetoric school itself laid down formal rules for the construction of speeches, and an analysis of the figures of speech, which strikes the modern as pedantic to the last degree. 195-212, 'established (instituit) salaries for rhetoricians, provided school halls for them (auditoria decrevit), and a system of exhibitions for the sons of poor men, if free-born (discipulos cum annonis pauperum filios modo ingenuos dari jussit),' a limitation which, whether through conscious imitation or mere coincidence of circumstance, was reproduced as to the qualification for fellowships at All Souls and scholarships at Eton in the reign of Henry VI. It is more probable that the centralizing edict was only to prevent town councils from appointing local favourites to the exclusion of better men from outside, and from cutting down salaries. masters of rhetoric schools, twenty-four annonæ, and masters of grammar schools, Greek and Latin, twelve annonæ.It is surprising and yet not surprising that such a history has never been attempted before. The over-subtle Greek mind, in its analysis of oratory as of philosophy, ran into precisely the same sort of excesses as the medieval mind did in the analysis of theology. ' Lastly, preparatory to the Senate, the praise and blame of laws, i.e. 117-138, had established an Athenaeum including public grammar school buildings. An annona was the yearly pay of an ordinary soldier or day labourer, so that the grammar schoolmaster was reckoned as worth twelve times, and the rhetorician twenty-four times an ordinary man. 414 Honorius and Theodosius extended the privileges of grammar masters, rhetoric masters, and philosophy preceptors, to their wives and children, their sons even being exempt from military service.It is surprising in view of the interest of the subject and the wealth of illustrative material; but it is not surprising when it is remembered that, before the year 1892, few guessed and fewer knew that there were any public or grammar schools - two terms for the same thing - in England at all, except Winchester and Eton, before the reputed creation of schools by that boy king. In fact, the Greek rhetorician was the intellectual father of the Oxford schoolman. speeches on the model of a minister introducing a bill or moving to repeal an act; and trying fictitious cases, preparatory for the Courts. 140-162, extended the system beyond Italy and 'bestowed honours and stipends on rhetoricians and philosophers in every province'. So that if 52 a year was the pay of a working man, the schoolmaster received 624 or 1248 a year. In the later Roman Empire endowed grammar and rhetoric schools were ubiquitous.If anyone was pressed with the problem how learned persons from John of Salisbury in the twelfth to Cardinal Wolsey in the sixteenth century obtained the schooling which fitted them for their university careers, the solution was invariably sought in some monastery near their birthplace, which was, without the smallest proof, credited with keeping a school. In the rhetoric school, the boys at once began to practise public speaking. stating a case in the best way and language possible; then proceeding to speeches in supporting or attacking the statement ανασκευη or κατασκευη. whether the stories of the wolf of Romulus and the Egeria of Numa are true. is a successful lawyer or a successful soldier the greater man? It is clear from Quintilian that in his time the schools of rhetoric had got very far from life. In Trier, or Trèves, then the capital of the Western Empire, the rhetoric master was to draw 30 annonæ, the Latin grammar schoolmaster 20, and the Greek grammar schoolmaster, 'if a fit one can be gotten', 12 annonæ; a striking piece of evidence of the tendency to the disappearance of Greek from the schools of Northern and Western Europe, as the like words used by Colet in the statutes of his reformed St. The lives and writings of the [page 21] chief and earliest Latin 'doctor,' whom the Middle Ages worshipped, St.The staff composition of Catholic schools has similarly been turned on its head, from some 90 percent female religious in the ’50s to less than 5 percent today (see Figure 1).

    The book, which was first published in 1947, has now been rearranged in a more convenient form, with useful additions here and there, and is now released in its fifth edition. Some are living under Hindu Yogins as disciples and are practising Yoga.

    (page numbers in brackets) Notes on the text The complete book is shown in this single web page. The Ancient Schools in the City of London and Christ's Hospital, in Sir Walter Besant's London, The City. Besides the foundation of grammar, in its wide sense, Quintilian would have every budding orator learn mathematics, including geometry, from the mathematician, music from the musician, and the art of gesticulation from the actor. 321 relieved grammar schoolmasters and other professors (professores) from military and municipal service, while leaving them open to accept municipal honours, 'so that they may more readily enter numerous pupils in liberal studies'. This, it has been conjectured, was with a view to preventing the appointment of Christians.

    You can scroll through it or use the following links to go to the various chapters. For these last items he is only repeating Greek formulæ and does not represent actual Roman practice. 305-306, with vicarious liberality, ordered the municipality of Augustodunum (Autun) to pay Eumenius, the master of the rhetoric school, from the public funds a salary of 600,000 sesterces (4800 a year). According to Augustine and others, he also by edict prohibited Christians from teaching in the schools; but as there is no record of any such edict forthcoming, this accusation must be received with the caution due to all the statements made by early Christian apologists about their opponents. 376, went even further in extending the interference of the central authority, charging the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul that 'in all towns which are called metropolis', equivalent in modern parlance to county boroughs, 'notable professors should be elected', and paid according to a scale of salaries laid down, viz.

    If one asked what was taught in these monastic schools one was told, psalm-singing and a little elementary Latin grammar: a fine preparation truly for the Polycraticus, or the statutes of Cardinal College. Furnivall, the author of the best historical account of education and schools of England, in the introduction to his Babees Book, published by the Early English Text Society in 1868, informed me in 1892, in answer to a request for help in research into the history of grammar schools, that there were no grammar schools in England before Edward VI. Next followed panegyrics or censures; and contrasts, e.g. Plutarch's 'Lives' is one of the results of such exercises. Declamations were still modelled on Demosthenes and Cicero, though, from the loss of constitutional liberty, such subjects as the praise of tyrannicides and the laus et interpretatio legum had become empty verbiage. Augustine of Hippo, and his contemporary the Christian poet Ausonius, may suffice by way of sample.

    Soon convinced to the contrary, he was always ready to impart instances of earlier schools which he came across in his wide reading in ancient manuscripts and books. Then commonplaces (communes loci), declamations against gaming or adultery, generalities to be used in particular cases of attack against e.g. As Seneca said, 'We learn for the schools, not for [page 19] life'. Augustine was born at Tagaste in Numidia, on the north coast of Africa, on 13 November, 354, of a Christian mother and a still heathen father. made a catechumen, a ceremony practically equivalent to our infant baptism - baptism being delayed till at least the age of thirty - he attended the elementary school, the grammar school, and the school of rhetoric just in the same way, and learnt the same things, as the 'heathen' Juvenal or Quintilian had done. 14) what miseries he endured when obedience to teachers was set before him that he might flourish in the world and distinguish himself in eloquence and gain wealth and honours.

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